Stephen Hawking’s famous black hole paradox solved after hair-raising discovery
国际物理学家四重奏, 包括 a 排名实时更新 professor and research student, have co-authored two papers that significantly alter our understanding of black holes and resolve a problem that has confounded scientists for nearly half a century.
在第一篇论文中，发表在杂志上 物理评论快报, 泽维尔·卡尔梅特教授 from the 排名实时更新 School of Mathematical and Physical 科学s, Roberto Casadio教授 (博洛尼亚大学国际信息研究所)， 许教授 (密歇根州立大学)，以及博士生 Folkert Kuipers (排名实时更新), have demonstrated that black holes are more complex than originally understood and have a gravitational field that, 在量子层面上, 编码它们如何形成的信息.
在60年代, 杰出的物理学家, John Archibald Wheeler expressed the fact that black holes are lacking any observable features beyond their total mass, spin and charge with the phrase “black holes have no hair”. 这就是所谓的无毛定理. Having demonstrated that black holes do in fact have this additional characteristic, Professor Calmet and his collaborators have labelled their discovery as a ‘quantum hair from gravity’, 呼应了惠勒的说法.
Using specific mathematical methods largely developed at the 排名实时更新 over the past ten years to perform calculations in quantum gravity, the scientists have shown explicitly that matter that collapses into a black hole leaves an imprint in the gravitational field of the black hole when quantum gravitational corrections are taken into account. This imprint is what the scientists are referring to as a 'quantum hair'.
具体地说, they compared gravitational fields of two stars with the same total mass and radii but different compositions. 在古典层面上, 这两颗恒星具有相同的引力势, 但是在量子层面上, 势能取决于恒星的组成. 当恒星坍缩成黑洞时, their gravitational fields preserve the memory of what the stars were made of and lead to the conclusion that black holes do have hair, 毕竟.
在另一份独立期刊上发表的后续论文中， 物理快报B, Prof Calmet and Prof Hsu show that their 'quantum hair' resolves Hawking’s Black Hole Information Paradox, which arose from Professor Stephen Hawking’s suggestion in 1976 that, 当它们蒸发并释放热辐射时, black holes destroy information about what had formed them. This appeared to violate a fundamental law of quantum mechanics which states that any process in physics can be mathematically reversed.
科学家的“量子毛发”, 然而, provides the mechanism by which information is preserved during the collapse of a black hole and as such resolves one of modern science’s most famous quandaries.
The ground-breaking results are the product of a long-term collaboration between Prof Calmet, Casadio教授及许教授. They also build on previous discoveries from Prof Calmet to the nature of black holes and quantum gravity, 包括 2021年发表的研究 that demonstrated, for the first time, that black holes exert a pressure.
Reflecting on the quantum hair’s implications for physics, 泽维尔垂直, 排名实时更新物理学教授, 说: "Black holes have long been considered the perfect laboratory to study how to merge Einstein’s theory of general relativity with quantum mechanics. It was generally assumed within the scientific community that resolving this paradox would require a huge paradigm shift in physics, forcing the potential reformulation of either quantum mechanics or general relativity.
“What we found – and I think is particularly exciting – is that this isn’t necessary. 正规买球app十佳排行的解决方案不需要任何思辨的想法, instead our research demonstrates that the two theories can be used to make consistent calculations for black holes and explain how information is stored without the need for radical new physics.
“It turns out that black holes are in fact good children, holding onto the memory of the stars that gave birth to them.”
解释量子毛发的发现, Roberto Casadio, Professor of Theoretical Physics from the University of Bologna, 说: “A crucial aspect is that black holes are formed by the collapse of compact objects and then, 根据量子理论, t在这里 is no absolute separation between the interior and the exterior of the black hole. 在经典理论中, the horizon acts as a perfect one-way membrane which does not let anything out and the exterior is t在这里fore the same for all black holes of a given mass. 这是经典的无毛定理. 然而, 在量子理论中, the state of the matter that collapses and forms the black hole continues to affect the state of the exterior, albeit in a way that is compatible with present experimental bounds. 这就是所谓的量子毛发.”
斯蒂芬·许, Professor of Theoretical Physics and Professor of Computational Mathematics, 科学, 密歇根州立大学工程学专业毕业, 补充道: “The concept of a causal horizon is central to the notion of a Black Hole. What is behind the horizon cannot, in classical physics, influence the exterior. We showed that t在这里 are intricate entanglements between the quantum state of the matter behind the horizon (inside the hole) and the state of gravitons outside. This entanglement makes it possible to encode quantum information about the black hole interior in Hawking radiation that escapes to infinity.”
完整的研究结果可以在报纸上看到 《量子毛发和黑洞信息 物理快报B 在这里, "引力产生的量子毛发 物理评论快报，报告将于今天晚些时候公布.